Warsaw, officially the Capital City of Warsaw, is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the River Vistula in east-central Poland. Its population is officially estimated at 1.86 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 6th most-populous city in the European Union. The city area measures 517 km2 (200 sq mi) and comprises 18 districts, while the metropolitan area covers 6,100 km2 (2,355 sq mi). Warsaw is an “Alpha-” global city, a major cultural, political and economic hub, and the country’s seat of government. It is also capital of the Masovian Voivodeship.
Warsaw traces its origins to a small fishing town in Masovia. The city rose to prominence in the late 16th century, when Sigismund III decided to move the Polish capital and his royal court from Kraków. Warsaw served as the de facto capital of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1795, and subsequently as the seat of Napoleon’s Duchy of Warsaw. The 19th century and its Industrial Revolution brought a demographic boom which made it one of the largest and most densely populated cities in Europe. Known then for its elegant architecture and boulevards, Warsaw was bombed and besieged at the start of World War II in 1939.Much of the historic city was destroyed and its diverse population decimated by the Ghetto Uprising in 1943, the general Warsaw Uprising in 1944 and systematic razing.
Przedmieścia przy Bramie Krakowskiej zaczęły się tworzyć już w XIV w., natomiast przy nich w 1454 powstał kościół bernardynów. Wówczas teren przed murami zaczęto nazywać placem Bernardyńskim (dziś tak nazywa się plac na Czerniakowie). Drewniane domostwa budowali tutaj różnorodni rzemieślnicy, powstały cegielnie, ukształtowały się dwie odnogi placu, gdzie wschodnia prowadziła do najstarszej warszawskiej jurydyki należącej do proboszcza kolegiaty: Dziekanki. Tak zwany plac Bernardyński (lub Bernardyńskie Przedmieście) był wcześniej nazywany Czerskim Przedmieściem, a potem Krakowskim Przedmieściem, gdyż był początkiem traktu łączącego Warszawę pierwotnie z Czerskiem, a następnie z Krakowem. Droga ta stała się też świetnym miejscem do budowy reprezentacyjnych pałaców magnaterii oraz rodziny królewskiej, było też znakomitym miejscem triumfalnych wjazdów do miasta (między innymi wjeżdżali tędy hetman Stefan Czarniecki czy Jan III Sobieski) oraz hołdów składanych przez Prusy Książęce i Inflanty. W I połowie XVII w. przybrała formę traktu od Kaplicy Moskiewskiej, będącej panteonem chwały oręża polskiego i tryumfów militarnych króla Zygmunta III Wazy do projektowanego „Forum Wazów”, z którego została zrealizowana jedynie kolumna króla Zygmunta.
A walk down Krakowskie Przedmiescie is a great way to experience Warsaw’s history. Situated at the end of the Royal Route, strollers will find the Presidential Palace and Warsaw University as well as Baroque churches.
The one-mile long street, one of Warsaw’s oldest, links the Old Town and the Royal Castle. Considered one of Warsaw’s most elegant streets, Krakowskie Przedmiescie dates back to the 15th century when it was a trade route. Travelers should be on the lookout for a 17th century statue of a Madonna and child that commemorates a Polish victory over Turkish forces in Vienna.
Copernicus Science Centre (Polish: Centrum Nauki Kopernik) is a science museum standing on the bank of the Vistula River in Warsaw, Poland. It contains over 450 interactive exhibits that enable visitors to single-handedly carry out experiments and discover the laws of science for themselves. The centre is the largest institution of its type in Poland and one of the most advanced in Europe. In 2018, since its opening, it has been visited by over 8 million people.
The first module of the Centre building was opened on 5 November 2010 with five galleries (On the move, Humans and the environment, Roots of civilization, Lightzone, Bzzz!); the exhibit for teenagers – RE: generation was opened 3 March 2011; a planetarium The Heavens of Copernicus opened on 19 June, the Discovery Park on 15 July, chemistry laboratory – 18 October; biology laboratory – 15 November, robotics workshop – 6 December, and physics laboratory – 20 December.
Copernicus, who lived from 1473 to 1543, is one of the most famous scientists and mathematicians to come out of Poland. It was he who formulated the theory that the earth revolves around the sun, and not the other way around.
It is fitting, therefore, that Poland honors him with the Copernicus Science Centre, with a planetarium exhibit devoted to space and how it impacts our lives. Travelers fluent in Polish may want to attend a lecture by one of Poland’s key scientists. Poland’s top science museum also offers hands-on experiments for budding scientists of all ages.
The Palace of Culture and Science is a notable high-rise building in central Warsaw, Poland. With a total height of 237 metres (778 ft), it is the second tallest building in both Warsaw and Poland (after the Varso Tower), the sixth tallest building in the European Union and one of the tallest in Europe. At the time of its completion in 1955, the Palace was the eighth tallest building in the world, retaining the position until 1961; it was also briefly the tallest clock tower in the world, from 2000 until the 2002 installation of a clock mechanism on the NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building in Tokyo, Japan.
Motivated by Polish historical architecture and American art deco high-rise buildings, the Palace of Culture and Science was designed by Soviet-Russian architect Lev Rudnev in “Seven Sisters” style and is informally referred to as the Eighth Sister.
The Palace of Culture and Science is a multi-functional building that houses everything from companies to entertainment venues. Built in the 1950s, the high-rise building – the tallest in Poland — features a spire that reaches into the sky. It was originally named for Joseph Stalin, but changed when the Soviet leader fell out of favor.
The building is sometimes referred to as Beijing, because its initials are PKIN, after the Chinese’s capital’s old name, Peking. As a concert venue, it’s hosted many international groups, including the Rolling Stones back in 1967. The Palace of Culture and Science is one of Warsaw’s top landmarks.
Pałac w Wilanowie – barokowy pałac królewski znajdujący się w Warszawie, w dzielnicy Wilanów. Został wzniesiony w latach 1681–1696 dla króla Jana III Sobieskiego i Marii Kazimiery według projektu Augustyna Wincentego Locciego; skrzydła boczne dobudowano w latach 1723–1729. Siedziba Muzeum Pałacu Króla Jana III w Wilanowie.
Pałac wraz z otaczającym parkiem oraz zabudowaniami zachował niezmienioną formę architektoniczną, walory historyczne i artystyczne. W 1994 wilanowski zespół pałacowy wraz z Morysinem został uznany za pomnik historii. Jest on miejscem wydarzeń kulturalnych, koncertów i spotkań. Obok pałacu znajduje się ogród.
Wilanow Palace is one of the most important monuments in Poland, representing what Poland was like before the 18th century. The palace was built as a home for King John III Sobieski. After his death the palace was owned by private families, each one changing the way the palace looked.
Unlike the rest of Warsaw, the royal palace survived WWII almost unscathed, and most of its furnishings and art were reinstalled after the war. Today, it is a museum that is home to the country’s artistic and royal heritage. The 17th century royal palace hosts several music festivals, including the summer concerts in the garden.
The Warsaw Rising Museum (Polish: Muzeum Powstania Warszawskiego), in the Wola district of Warsaw, Poland, is dedicated to the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. The institution of the museum was established in 1983, but no construction work took place for many years. It opened on July 31, 2004, marking the 60th anniversary of the uprising.
The museum sponsors research into the history of the uprising, and the history and possessions of the Polish Underground State. It collects and maintains hundreds of artifacts – ranging from weapons used by the insurgents to love letters – to present a full picture of the people involved. The museum’s stated goals include
the creation of an archive of historical information on the uprising and the recording of the stories and memories of living participants. Its director is Jan Ołdakowski, with historian Dariusz Gawin from the Polish Academy of Sciences as his deputy.
The museum is a member organisation of the Platform of European Memory and Conscience.
Warsaw was famous for withstanding the Nazis during World War II. The Jewish ghetto, where Jews were confined by the Nazis, was the largest in Europe. The uprising, however, was not limited to Jews alone. Indeed, the whole city joined the fight in 1944.
The Warsaw Uprising Museum opened in 2004 on the 60th anniversary of the uprising. Visitors will find a day-by-day account of the uprising which began on August 1 and ended on October 2. They’ll also find an exhibit dedicated to children who participated in the uprising; a replica of the sewers the insurgents used to get around, and an observation tower with great views of Warsaw.
The Royal Castle in Warsaw (Polish: Zamek Królewski w Warszawie) is a state museum and a national historical monument, which formerly served as the official royal residence of several Polish monarchs. The personal offices of the king and the administrative offices of the royal court were located in the Castle from the 16th century until the final partition of Poland in 1795. Situated in the Castle Square, at the entrance to the Warsaw Old Town, the Royal Castle holds a significant collection of Polish and European art.
The Royal Castle witnessed many notable events in Poland’s history; the Constitution of 3 May 1791, first of its type in Europe and the world’s second-oldest codified national constitution, was drafted here by the Four-Year Parliament. The edifice was redesigned into a neoclassical style following the partitions of Poland. Under the Second Polish Republic (1918–1939), it was the seat of the Polish head of state and president. The Second World War brought complete destruction to the building; in September 1939 it was targeted and ignited by Luftwaffe fighter aircraft, and then detonated by the Nazis after the failed Warsaw Uprising in 1944.
The Royal Castle served as the home and officials of Polish rulers for centuries. It is located on Castle Square at the entrance to Old Town. The castle dates back to the 14th century when it was the official residence of the Dukes of Masovia.
It was conquered many times by invaders from afar, but bounced back to be the place where the first constitution in Europe was drafted in 1791. This impressive structure, with a tower in the middle, is a museum today, though official state meetings are sometimes held here. The castle’s design was the inspiration of many other Warsaw buildings.
Łazienki Park or Royal Baths Park (Polish: Park Łazienkowski, Łazienki Królewskie) is the largest park in Warsaw, Poland, occupying 76 hectares of the city center.
The park-and-palace complex lies in Warsaw’s central district (Śródmieście) on Ujazdów Avenue, which is part of the Royal Route linking the Royal Castle with Wilanów Palace to the south. North of Łazienki Park, on the other side of Agrykola Street, stands Ujazdów Castle.
Originally designed in the 17th century as a baths park for nobleman Stanisław Herakliusz Lubomirski, in the 18th century Łazienki was transformed by Poland’s last monarch, Stanislaus II Augustus, into a setting for palaces, villas, classicist follies, and monuments. In 1918 it was officially designated a public park.
Łazienki is visited by tourists from all over Poland and the world, and serves as a venue for music, the arts, and culture. The park is also home to peacocks and a large number of squirrels.
Lazienki Park, also known as Royal Baths Park, is the largest park in Warsaw. Designed as a park in the 17th century, it eventually was turned into a place for villas, monuments and palaces.
The Palace on the Isle is the foremost building in the park, located on the Royal Route in central Warsaw. This palace today is a treasure trove of paintings collected by Polish royalty and statues of the country’s greatest rulers.
Also located on the isle is a Greco-Roman amphitheatre that dates back to 1793. More palaces and an 18th century orangery can be found in the park.
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