Barcelona tourist attractions

Barcelona tourist attractions

Barcelona, the cosmopolitan capital of Spain’s Catalonia region, is known for its art and architecture. The fantastical Sagrada Família church and other modernist landmarks designed by Antoni Gaudí dot the city. Museu Picasso and Fundació Joan Miró feature modern art by their namesakes. City history museum MUHBA, includes several Roman archaeological sites.

Barcelona (/ˌbɑːrsəˈloʊnə/ BAR-sə-LOH-nə, Catalan: [bəɾsəˈlonə], Spanish: [baɾθeˈlona]) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the fifth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, the Ruhr area, Madrid, and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, and bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of which is 512 metres (1,680 feet) high.

Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After joining with the Kingdom of Aragon to form the confederation of the Crown of Aragon, Barcelona, which continued to be the capital of the Principality of Catalonia, became the most important city in the Crown of Aragon and the main economic and administrative centre of the Crown, only to be overtaken by Valencia, wrested from Arab domination by the Catalans, shortly before the dynastic union between the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon in 1492.


1.Basílica de la Sagrada Família

Basílica de la Sagrada Família

The Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família, shortened as the Sagrada Família, is an unfinished church in the Eixample district of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It is the largest unfinished Catholic church in the world.

Describing the Sagrada Família, art critic Rainer Zerbst said “it is probably impossible to find a church building anything like it in the entire history of art”,and Paul Goldberger describes it as “the most extraordinary personal interpretation of Gothic architecture since the Middle Ages”. The basilica is not the cathedral church of the Archdiocese of Barcelona, as that title belongs to the Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia (Barcelona Cathedral).

The Basílica de la Sagrada Família stands in the northern part of the city, dominating its surroundings with its 18 spindly towers soaring high above all the other buildings. One of Europe’s most unconventional churches, this amazing monument is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The renowned Catalan architect of modern times, Antoni Gaudí was commissioned in 1883 to design this Basilica as a neo-Gothic church. But instead of following the plans, he created a signature example of his famous surrealistic Art Nouveau architecture. He had no firm ideas in mind, preferring to alter and add to the plans as work progressed.

Although Gaudí had originally forecast between 10 and fifteen years, the church was never completed during his lifetime. Since 1926, several other architects have continued work on the Basilica based on Gaudí’s plans. In 2010, the main nave was completed, and the Basilica was consecrated by Pope Benedict XVI (although construction is still ongoing and expected to be completed by 2026).


2.Barri Gòtic (Gothic Quarter)

Barri Gòtic (Gothic Quarter)

The charming Gothic Quarter, or Barri Gòtic, has narrow medieval streets filled with trendy bars, clubs and Catalan restaurants. The Museu d’Història de Barcelona shows remains of the Roman city. Artisans sell leather and jewelry near the Cathedral of Barcelona, while flower stalls and street-food vendors line busy avenue La Rambla. The Plaça del Pi, named after the adjacent Gothic church, hosts a weekend art market.

For 2,000 years, the Gothic Quarter has been the spiritual and secular center of the city. Relics of ancient Roman buildings are still found here, but the Middle Ages are best represented by the historic monuments packed into this quarter.

Mainly built between the 13th and 15th centuries, the Catedral de la Santa Cruz y Santa Eulalia is the heart of the Gothic Quarter. Surrounding the cathedral is a maze of cobblestone streets and alleyways.

Tourists will enjoy wandering the narrow pedestrian lanes, and stopping to discover the neighborhood’s quaint boutiques and restaurants. By getting lost here, visitors become immersed in the magical ambience of a traffic-free medieval world.

Picturesque squares are enlivened by the sounds of people chatting and laughing or the strumming of Spanish classical guitar. Children often play a pickup game of soccer in the Gothic Quarter’s hidden corners, and local residents socialize at the sidewalk terraces of cafés that are tucked away in courtyards.

The quarter encompasses the oldest parts of the city of Barcelona, and includes the remains of the city’s Roman wall and several notable medieval landmarks. Much of the present-day fabric of the quarter, however, dates to the 19th and early 20th centuries. El Call, the medieval Jewish quarter, is located within this area, along with the former Sinagoga Major.

The Barri Gòtic retains a labyrinthine street plan, with many small streets opening out into squares. Most of the quarter is closed to regular traffic although open to service vehicles and taxis.


3.Casa Milà (La Pedrera)

Casa Milà (La Pedrera)

Casa Milà, popularly known as La Pedrera in reference to its unconventional rough-hewn appearance, is a Modernista building in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It was the last private residence designed by architect Antoni Gaudí and was built between 1906 and 1912.

In the Eixample district off the elegant boulevard of Passeig de Gràcia, the UNESCO-listed Casa Milà is Antoni Gaudí’s most famous secular building. Casa Milà is also affectionately known as “La Pedrera,” which translates to “The Stone Quarry” because the building resembles an open quarry.

Built between 1906 and 1912, this flamboyant avant-garde dwelling looks more like a sculpture than a functional building. Every line of the natural stone facade is curved, with rounded windows and metal balcony railings twining around in plant-like shapes. Even the roof has an undulating form, complemented by the decorative chimneys.

The entrance to the building is on the Carrer de Provença, through a remarkable wrought-iron gate that leads to an inner courtyard. The building is supported by ribbed arches that were designed for load-bearing purposes, a feature that reveals Gaudí’s genius as a structural engineer.

In dit bouwwerk bevindt zich een museum, met wisselende exposities. Verder zijn een appartement op de vierde verdieping, de zolder (met een tentoonstelling over het werk van de architect) en het golvende dakterras te bezichtigen. De luchtkanalen en schoorstenen hebben grillige vormen die kenmerkend zijn voor het gebouw.

In Casa Milà bevindt zich de eerste parkeergarage van Barcelona. De bewoners konden per koets (en later per auto) naar hun eigen verdieping rijden. Pas later werden er liften geïnstalleerd.

In 1984 werd La Pedrera, samen met andere werken van Gaudí, erkend als werelderfgoed door de UNESCO.

Sinds 1986 is La Pedrera eigendom van de bank Caixa Catalunya (de huidige Catalunya Caixa), die voor aankoop en restauratie zo´n 7 miljard pesetas neertelde.


4.Barcelona’s Social Hub

Barcelona's Social Hub

La Rambla (Catalan pronunciation: [lə ˈramblə]) is a street in central Barcelona. A tree-lined pedestrian street, it stretches for 1.2 km (0.75 mi) connecting the Plaça de Catalunya in its center with the Christopher Columbus Monument at Port Vell. La Rambla forms the boundary between the neighbourhoods of the Barri Gòtic to the east and the El Raval to the west.

La Rambla can be crowded, especially during the height of the tourist season. Its popularity with tourists has affected the character of the street, which has shifted in composition to pavement cafes and souvenir kiosks. It has also suffered from the attention of pickpockets.

The Spanish poet Federico García Lorca once said that La Rambla was “the only street in the world which I wish would never end.

The heart of Barcelona’s social life is found on La Rambla, a wide tree-shaded avenue that divides the Old Town into two parts. La Rambla stretches from the Plaça de Catalunya, where the beautiful Romanesque 12th-century Convent of Santa Anna stands, all the way down to the port.

This street features expansive pedestrian sidewalks, lined with shops, restaurants, and outdoor cafés, making it one of the most popular hangouts in the city.

During the day, many locals are found here doing their everyday shopping at the Mercat de la Boqueria. At night, groups of friends and families take their evening paseo (stroll) on La Rambla to enjoy the fresh air and lively ambience. On some days, onlookers might be treated to live music, a mime show, or other impromptu street performances.


5.Bogatell Beach

Bogatell Beach

Playa de Bogatell is in the 14th place out of 53 beaches in the Barcelona region 2.8 km away from its center, the city of Barcelona. It is one of the beaches of Barcelona settlement, just 2.8 km from its center. The beach is located in an urban area.

One of the best beaches of Spain is found within the city limits of Barcelona. Locals flock to Bogatell Beach to sunbathe, socialize, relax, play volleyball, or go windsurfing. Other things to do include kitesurfing and kayaking.

The 600-meter-long beach features a sandy shoreline and excellent amenities: restrooms, showers, parking, a beachfront promenade, snack bars, and ice-cream shops. There are also multiple lifeguard towers to ensure beach safety.


6.Catedral de la Santa Cruz y Santa Eulalia

Catedral de la Santa Cruz y Santa Eulalia

The Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia, also known as Barcelona Cathedral, is the Gothic cathedral and seat of the Archbishop of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. The cathedral was constructed from the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries, with the principal work done in the fourteenth century.

is de gotische kathedraal van Barcelona, gelegen aan de Plaça de la Seu. Zij is de hoofdkerk van het aartsbisdom Barcelona en is gewijd aan de heilige Eulalia van Mérida, die in 304 stierf als martelares en co-patrones van de stad is.

At the center of the Gothic Quarter on the Monte Tabor is the Catedral de la Santa Cruz y Santa Eulalia (Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia). This medieval cathedral is a masterpiece of Catalan Gothic architecture with an ornately sculpted facade.

The sanctuary contains magnificent works of art, including the Altarpiece of the Transfiguration by Bernat Martorell, as well as other medieval altarpieces and a remarkable gilded, jewel-encrusted monstrance. The cathedral also has an exquisite Gothic choir and keystones that date to the 14th and 15th centuries.

Surprising many visitors, the cathedral’s cloister and garden shelter 13 live geese that symbolize the martyrdom of Saint Eulalia. The cloister’s pond provides habitat for the geese.


7.Parc Güell: Gaudí’s Surrealist Park

Parc Güell: Gaudí's Surrealist Park

Park Güell (Catalan: Parc Güell [ˈpaɾɡ ˈɡweʎ]; Spanish: Parque Güell) is a privatized park system composed of gardens and architectural elements located on Carmel Hill, in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Carmel Hill belongs to the mountain range of Collserola – the Parc del Carmel is located on the northern face. Park Güell is located in La Salut, a neighborhood in the Gràcia district of Barcelona. With urbanization in mind, Eusebi Güell assigned the design of the park to Antoni Gaudí, a renowned architect and the face of Catalan modernism.

Colorful, cheerful, and full of whimsy, this luxuriant 19-hectare hillside park is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. Created between 1900 and 1914, the Park Güell includes 12 acres of landscaped gardens featuring Surrealist architectural elements created by Antoni Gaudí and eight acres of pristine woodlands (pine forest and olive groves).

Splendid fountains, viaducts, grottoes, a colonnaded hall, winding staircases, and semi-closed conversation seats are scattered throughout the garden space. These creative structures are decorated with vibrant mosaics made of ceramic fragments.

There are picnic areas and a spectacular terrace that offers panoramic views of the city and the sea. Gaudí himself loved this area of the city (the Gràcia district), and his home was located here.



Florence tourist attractions

Florence tourist attractions

Florence, capital of Italy’s Tuscany region, is home to many masterpieces of Renaissance art and architecture. One of its most iconic sights is the Duomo, a cathedral with a terracotta-tiled dome engineered by Brunelleschi and a bell tower by Giotto. The Galleria dell’Accademia displays Michelangelo’s “David” sculpture. The Uffizi Gallery exhibits Botticelli’s “The Birth of Venus” and da Vinci’s “Annunciation.”

The city attracts millions of tourists each year, and UNESCO declared the Historic Centre of Florence a World Heritage Site in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, Renaissance art and architecture and monuments.The city also contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, and still exerts an influence in the fields of art, culture and politics. Due to Florence’s artistic and architectural heritage, Forbes ranked it as the most beautiful city in the world in 2010.

Florence plays an important role in Italian fashion, and is ranked in the top 15 fashion capitals of the world by Global Language Monitor; furthermore, it is a major national economic centre, as well as a tourist and industrial hub.


1.Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore and Piazza Duomo

Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore and Piazza Duomo

Florence Cathedral, formally the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore, is the cathedral of Florence, Italy. It was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to a design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was structurally completed by 1436, with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi

Piazza Duomo and the group of buildings that form its cathedral complex gather some of Italy’s greatest artistic treasures into one relatively small area. As you tour the baptistery, the bell tower, the cathedral, and its museum, you’ll see some of the best-known masterpieces of art and architecture by the greatest artists of the Italian Renaissance — Ghiberti, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Giotto, and Michelangelo.

Begin by walking around the square to admire the intricate inlaid marble exteriors, then step inside each one to look more closely at the stained-glass works of art that greet you wherever you look.

The cathedral complex, in Piazza del Duomo, includes the Baptistery and Giotto’s Campanile. These three buildings are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site covering the historic centre of Florence and are a major tourist attraction of Tuscany. The basilica is one of Italy’s largest churches, and until the development of new structural materials in the modern era, the dome was the largest in the world. It remains the largest brick dome ever constructed.

The cathedral is the mother church of the Archdiocese of Florence, whose archbishop is Giuseppe Betori.


2.Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistery of St. John)

Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistery of St. John)

The Florence Baptistery, also known as the Baptistery of Saint John, is a religious building in Florence, Italy, and has the status of a minor basilica. The octagonal baptistery stands in both the Piazza del Duomo and the Piazza San Giovanni, across from Florence Cathedral and the Campanile di Giotto.

The Baptistery is one of the oldest buildings in the city, constructed between 1059 and 1128 in the Florentine Romanesque style. Although the Florentine style did not spread across Italy as widely as the Pisan Romanesque or Lombard styles, its influence was decisive for the subsequent development of architecture, as it formed the basis from which Francesco Talenti, Leon Battista Alberti, Filippo Brunelleschi, and other master architects of their time created Renaissance architecture. In the case of the Florentine Romanesque, one can speak of “proto-renaissance”, but at the same time an extreme survival of the late antique architectural tradition in Italy, as in the cases of the Basilica of San Salvatore, Spoleto, the Temple of Clitumnus, and the church of Sant’Alessandro in Lucca.

The Baptistery is renowned for its three sets of artistically important bronze doors with relief sculptures. The south doors were created by Andrea Pisano and the north and east doors by Lorenzo Ghiberti.Michelangelo dubbed the east doors the Gates of Paradise.

The Italian poet Dante Alighieri and many other notable Renaissance figures, including members of the Medici family, were baptized in this baptistery.

The building contains the monumental tomb of Antipope John XXIII, by Donatello.


3.Piazzale Michelangelo

Piazzale Michelangelo

Piazzale Michelangelo is a square with a panoramic view of Florence, Italy, located in the Oltrarno district of the city.

So often misspelled as Piazzale Michelangelo that even city tourism material occasionally slips up, this terrace above the city is an obligatory stop for tour buses, and the spot from which all those postcard shots of the cathedral are taken. During busy tourist seasons, the best time to enjoy it in relative peace is late afternoon or early evening; it’s especially lovely at sunset.

Although you can get a 360-degree panorama of Florence from the dome of the cathedral, only from this terrace can you fully appreciate how Brunelleschi’s dome dominates the city center. Nor can any other height give you this sweeping city view that encompasses the Ponte Vecchio, Palazzo Vecchio, Santa Croce, and other landmarks.

This Florentine piazza was designed by architect Giuseppe Poggi and built in 1869 on a hill just south of the historic center, during the redevelopment of Oltrarno, the left (South) bank of the Arno river. In 1869, Florence was the capital of Italy and the whole city was involved in an urban renewal, the so-called “Risanamento” or the “Renovation” of the city’s neighborhoods. Lungarni (riverside walkways; “lungarno”, singular) were built on the riversides. On the right bank, the fourteenth-century city walls were removed and turned into the Viali di Circonvallazione, mimicking the French “boulevard” design, six lanes wide and lined with trees. On the left bank winding up the hill of San Miniato the Viale dei Colli was built, a tree-lined street over 8 kilometers long ending at the Piazzale Michelangelo which was built as a terrace with a panoramic view of the city.


4.Uffizi Palace and Gallery

Uffizi Palace and Gallery

The Uffizi Gallery is a prominent art museum located adjacent to the Piazza della Signoria in the Historic Centre of Florence in the region of Tuscany, Italy.

The Uffizi Gallery (UK: /juːˈfɪtsi, ʊˈfiːtsi/; Italian: Galleria degli Uffizi, pronounced [ɡalleˈriːa deʎʎ ufˈfittsi]) is a prominent art museum located adjacent to the Piazza della Signoria in the Historic Centre of Florence in the region of Tuscany, Italy. One of the most important Italian museums and the most visited, it is also one of the largest and best known in the world and holds a collection of priceless works, particularly from the period of the Italian Renaissance.

After the ruling House of Medici died out, their art collections were given to the city of Florence under the famous Patto di famiglia negotiated by Anna Maria Luisa, the last Medici heiress. The Uffizi is one of the first modern museums. The gallery had been open to visitors by request since the sixteenth century, and in 1765 it was officially opened to the public, formally becoming a museum in 1865

Few would argue the Uffizi’s place among the handful of world’s top art museums. Its collections are simply staggering in their diversity and quality, and even if art is not your main interest, you should see the highlights of the paintings here.

You’ll come away understanding a lot more of how Florence’s 14th- to 16th-century painters changed the face of western art, as you see the transition from the stilted Byzantine images to the life-like figures and landscapes of the Renaissance artists.


5.Piazza della Signoria and the Loggia dei Lanzi

Piazza della Signoria and the Loggia dei Lanzi

The Loggia dei Lanzi, also called the Loggia della Signoria, is a building on a corner of the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, Italy, adjoining the Uffizi Gallery. It consists of wide arches open to the street. The arches rest on clustered pilasters with Corinthian capitals. The wide arches appealed so much to the Florentines that Michelangelo proposed that they should be continued all around the Piazza della Signoria

The Loggia dei Lanzi, also called the Loggia della Signoria, is a building on a corner of the Piazza della Signoria in Florence, Italy, adjoining the Uffizi Gallery. It consists of wide arches open to the street. The arches rest on clustered pilasters with Corinthian capitals.

This broad square has been the center of power in Florence since its 14th-century origins – and perhaps even before, as Etruscan and Roman remains have been found below its pavement. Today, it is the social center as well, a favorite meeting place filled with tourists and locals. At its center is the Neptune Fountain, at one side the Palazzo Vecchio, still housing the city’s government.

Against the wall of the Uffizi, which forms one end of the piazza, is the Loggia dei Lanzi, an outdoor sculpture gallery with several notable pieces. Most widely recognized of these is Benvenuto Cellini’s best-known work, Perseus with the Head of Medusa. In front of the Palazzo Vecchio is a copy of Michelangelo’s David.


6.Galleria dell’Accademia (Academy Gallery)

Galleria dell'Accademia (Academy Gallery)

The Galleria dell’Accademia di Firenze, or “Gallery of the Academy of Florence”, is an art museum in Florence, Italy. It is best known as the home of Michelangelo’s sculpture David. It also has other sculptures by Michelangelo and a large collection of paintings by Florentine artists, mostly from the period 1300–1600.

The Galleria dell’Accademia di Firenze, or “Gallery of the Academy of Florence”, is an art museum in Florence, Italy. It is best known as the home of Michelangelo’s sculpture David. It also has other sculptures by Michelangelo and a large collection of paintings by Florentine artists, mostly from the period 1300–1600 (the Trecento to the Late Renaissance). It is smaller and more specialized than the Uffizi, the main art museum in Florence. It adjoins the Accademia di Belle Arti or academy of fine arts of Florence, but despite the name has no other connection with it.

In 2016, it had 1.46 million visitors, making it the second-most-visited art museum in Italy, after the Uffizi (2.02 million).

Michelangelo’s best-known work, David, is copied all over Florence, but inside this art museum, you’ll find the original. Unfortunately, as a result of an attack on the sculpture, it is now behind glass, but it still never fails to inspire.

The David isn’t the only Michelangelo here, nor is it the only important masterpiece. In the sculptures shown in the same gallery, you can almost watch Michelangelo at work as you see the four unfinished slaves, meant for a tomb in Rome, seemingly in the process of being released from the marble.


7.Palazzo Vecchio (Palazzo della Signoria)

Palazzo Vecchio (Palazzo della Signoria)

Piazza della Signoria (Italian pronunciation: [ˈpjattsa della siɲɲoˈriːa]) is a w-shaped square in front of the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy. It was named after the Palazzo della Signoria, also called Palazzo Vecchio. It is the main point of the origin and history of the Florentine Republic and still maintains its reputation as the political focus of the city. It is the meeting place of Florentines as well as the numerous tourists, located near Palazzo Vecchio and Piazza del Duomo and gateway to Uffizi Gallery.

The Palazzo Vecchio is the town hall of Florence, Italy. It overlooks the Piazza della Signoria, which holds a copy of Michelangelo’s David statue, and the gallery of statues in the adjacent Loggia dei Lanzi.

History, art, and power echo in the opulent rooms and grand galleries of this fortress-like palace in the center of Florence. From here, the city/republic was ruled, and its powerful Medici family commissioned the leading artists and architects of the day to design and decorate their offices and apartments.

Be sure to sign up early for one of the free tours, so you’ll get to see some of the secret passages the Medici used to move among the rooms; return in the evening (save your ticket) to climb to the roof for sunset views of the city.

historical places in Isfahan Iran

historical places in Isfahan Iran

we want to show you 7 historical places in Isfahan. Isfahan is one of the most beautiful cities in Iran and the world.

1-The first place to visit is the most beautiful and best church in Iran, the 400-year-old Vanak Church :

Places to Visit in Isfahan

This church is located in Jolfa neighborhood of Isfahan and is one of the Armenian churches of Isfahan. This church was built 400 years ago during the reign of Shah Abbas II The ticket price for foreign tourists is 100 thousand tomans or about 2 dollars and 50 cents.

2- One of the best places to visit in Isfahan is Naqsh Jahan Square:

Places to Visit in Isfahan

There are many places of interest in this square. One of them beautiful mosque. This is Imam Mosque or Shah Mosque. Let’s go see together. The ticket price for tourists is 100 thousand tomans or about 2 dollars and 50 cents. The price of each dollar in Iran today is 42 thousand tomans.

3-Imam Mosque or Shah Mosque :

Places to Visit in Isfahan

is the most important mosque of Safavid era in Isfahan. This mosque has great grandeur. If you are here you feel it. This mosque was built during the time of Shah Abbas and around 410 years ago.

4-One of the most beautiful and historical places in the city of Isfahan is Ali Qapo mansion:

This mansion is located in Naqsh Jahan square This mansion was built 400 years ago during the Safavid era. At that time, the king used this mansion to carry out state affairs The ticket price for tourists is 2 dollars and 50 cents. One of the must-see places in Isfahan is Naqsh Jahan Square. There is an old and historical market in this square. This is Isfahan market. You can see and buy souvenirs of Iran and the city of Isfahan, such as various types of copper dishes, inlay work, enamel work, tile making, and all kinds of delicious sweets such as Gaz.

5-One of the most unique places to visit in Isfahan is Chehl Seton Palace :

Places to Visit in Isfahan

This palace is close to Naqsh Jahan Square. Chehel soton Palace has an area of about 67 thousand square meters. This building was built during the time of Shah Abbas A.L. Shah Abbas was one of the greatest kings of Iran who built many buildings in Iran and the city of Isfahan This palace was used to receive special guests. the ticket price is 2 dollars and 50 cents.

6- The sixth historical place of Isfahan is thirty-three bridges :

Places to Visit in Isfahan

This bridge is located on the most beautiful river in Isfahan. This bridge is in the center of Isfahan city. It has 33 columns, 295 meters long and 14 meters wide. This bridge was built about 400 years ago. At that time, this bridge was used for important ceremonies and celebrations. Many tourists consider this bridge to be a masterpiece of world architecture and one of the most beautiful bridges in the world.

7-The last place is chahar bagh Street :

Places to Visit in Isfahan

An old and beautiful street in the center of Isfahan I suggest you come to this street at night and enjoy walking in it. Isfahan has many places to see, such as Minarjanban, Sheikh Lotfollah

Tbilisi tourist attractions

Tbilisi tourist attractions

we go to the most famous symbol of the city of Tbilisi .Tbilisi is the capital of the country of Georgia

Tbilisi tourist attractions

1.Bridge of Peace In Georgian :

this bridge is called “mshvidobis khidi”. The 150m long arching bridge is made of steel and glass and is embezzled with numerous LEDs and lights. This wonderful landmark is located in the center of Tbilisi, on the Kura River, and connects old and new Tbilisi. The bridge was officially opened on May 6, 2010. Strolling atop the bridge gives you a breathtaking view of the Mtkhi Cathedral, the statue of King Vakhtang Gorgasali and the Narikala Castle on the one side , and the Baratashvili Bridge and the Presidential Office building, on the other. Of course, the bridge structure, with the use of thousands of LEDs in the walls and lights in its curved curtain, attracts the eye of every tourist at night. Interestingly, the design of the bridge was done by Michael Dolcichi an Italian, and lighting by French philosopher Martínez The construction of this huge structure took place in Italy it was then moved to Tbilisi by land.

Tbilisi tourist attractions

2.Narikala castle :

overlooking the city of Tbilisi and the river Kura. This castle is on a steep slope of a hill, consisting of two sections, the sulfur baths and the Tbilisi Botanical Garden separated by walls. A 13th century castle once stood at the base of the castle, where it burned down and was eventually replaced, in 1996 and 1997, by the St. Nicholas church. The interior walls of this church are depicted in pictures of Georgian history as well as narrations of the Bible. This castle was built in the 4th century AD in the style of Iranian architecture, and was considered by the King of David in the seventeenth century as part of the Umayyad caliphate The moguls did not miss this monument in their attack on the city and renamed it to Narikala (small castle). Many of the remains of this castle, which are visited by tourists today, are related to the 16th and 17th centuries, and the rest of it has been lost in various wars. Parts of the castle were damaged in the earthquake that rocked the city of Tbilisi in 1827.

Tbilisi tourist attractions

Historical discussions Tbilisi

Vakhtang was one of the last Kings of Iberia, who reigned in the 5th century, and was of the Chosroid Dynasty who were a dynasty of Iranian Mihranid origin, accepted Christianity as their official religion, and maneuvered the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Iran to retain a degree of independence. Vakhtang I has always been an endeared historical figure of Georgian culture, even referred to as a Saint by the Georgian Church. There are many recorded names in different historical text when referring to Vakhtang I, among which are Gorgasali meaning “Wolf-bodied” -with possible references to the wolf cult of Georgia or the wolf shaped hat that he wore, and the Persian name Varaz Khosrovtang which is said to have been rendered Vakhtang in Georgian. Vakhtang I was born in 440 AD in Mtskheta to Mihrdad V -a Georgian King and Sagdukht, a Persian Princess. He later married the Sassanid Princess Balendukht at the age of 19. It is said that King Vakhtang I gave chase to a Pheasant The King’s falcon allegedly caught or injured a pheasant during the hunt, after which both birds fell into a nearby hot spring and died from burns He dazzled by the warmth of the spring and he ordered his men to start building a settlement and named it Tbilisi meaning “The Holder of Hot Springs” which is now the capital city of Georgia. Once the Hundred Years Peace between Iran and Rome collapsed, Kavad I of the Sassanids summoned Vakhtang as a vassal to join in a new campaign against Rome Vakhtang refused, provoking an Iranian invasion of his kingdom. Then about 60, he had to spend the last years of his life in war and exile, fruitlessly appealing for the Roman aid. Vakhtang entered a pantheon of Georgian historical heroes already in the Middle Ages. In popular memory, his image has acquired a legendary and romantic façade. Vakhtang is a subject of several folk poems and legends, extolling the king’s perceived greatness, enormous physical strength, courage and devoutness to Christianity. In Tbilisi there is a street and a square bear his name, and a 1967 monument by the sculptor Elguja Amashukeli tops the Metekhi cliff. Tbilisi has long been a place for all religions The Juma Mosque of Tbilisi is a testament to the fact. The mosque, also known as Tbilisi Mosque, is located in the Botanikuri area near the Sulfur Baths, and is a place for worship for Sunni and Shiite Muslims. The building was built in 1700 by the Ottoman Empire and was destroyed and rebuilt three times during 300 years.

Tbilisi tourist attractions

For a very long time Georgian Muslims, which make up 10% of the country’s population held their prayers in 2 mosques. Juma Mosque for Sunnies and the Blue Mosque for the Shiite. However, in 1951, the Blue Mosque was demolished by the Soviet Government to make way for a bridge leaving Shiite Muslims without a place of worship. At that time, the doors of the Juma Mosque were opened on the Shiite Muslims and making it one of the few mosques in which both Shiite and Sunni Muslims pray. Until 1996, a black curtain separated the two groups, but since then Shia and Sunni Muslims have been worshiping alongside each other. The Svetitskhoveli Cathedral is an orthodox church located in the historic city of Mtskheta, in the northwest of Tbilisi. The early medieval masterpiece introduced by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The main building of this church dates back to the 4th century, but what we are now witnessing was built in 1029. It is said that the St. Nino a woman who introduced Christianity to Georgia or Iberia, built this monument where the two rivers, the Kura and Aragvi meet. Choosing this place has a long story. In summery, According to Georgian hagiography, in the 1st century AD a Georgian Jew from Mtskheta named Elias was in Jerusalem when Jesus was crucified. Elias bought Jesus’ robe from a Roman soldier at Golgotha and brought it back to Georgia. Returning to his native city, he was met by his sister Sidonia who upon touching the robe immediately died from the emotions engendered by the sacred object. The robe could not be removed from her grasp, so she was buried with it. The place where Sidonia is buried with Christ’s robe is preserved in the Cathedral. Later, from her grave grew an enormous cedar tree. Ordering the cedar chopped down to build the church, St. Nino had seven columns made from it for the church’s foundation. It was further said that from the magical seventh column a sacred liquid flowing through that cured people of all diseases. In Georgian sveti means “pillar” and tskhoveli means “life-giving” or “living”, hence the name of the cathedral. The existence of this church in Mtskheta made it the capital of the country before the king of Vakhtang selected Tbilisi as the capital, which, of course, is known by the Georgians as the religious capital of the country. The church withstood a lot of damage throughout its history but was rebuilt. It is not bad to know that there are important people buried inside the church such as Vakhtang Gergasali, the founder of the city of Tbilsi, the king of Hercules, the king of Kakheti , the first wife of Gorgin Khan, one of the Kartli kings of the time of the Safavids, King David VI of Iberia the eighth Georgi the last of the Iberian king Some members of the royal family. The name of the constructor was Arsukidze. In the outer wall of the northern wall, there stands a magnificent statue of a hand-held hammer, the text underneath it reads: “This is the hand of the Arsukidze, the slave of the Lord, God forgive him.” He never met the completion of his masterpiece and died before the church was completed. The Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi (Tbilisis cminda samebis sakatedro tadzari) , also known as the Samba, is the main Orthodox church in Georgia, located at the heart of Tbilisi. The construction of this building lasted from 1995 to 2004 It is the third-tallest Eastern Orthodox cathedral in the world and one of the largest religious buildings in the world by total area. Sameba is a synthesis of traditional styles dominating the Georgian church architecture at various stages in history and has some Byzantine undertones The idea to build a new cathedral to commemorate 1,500 years of autocephaly of the Georgian Orthodox Church and 2,000 years from the birth of Jesus emerged as early as 1989, a crucial year for the national awakening of the then-Soviet republic of Georgia. In May 1989, the Georgian Orthodox Patriarchate and the authorities of Tbilisi announced an international contest for the “Holy Trinity Cathedral” project. No winner was chosen at the first round of the contest when more than a hundred projects were submitted. Finally the design by architect Archil Mindiashvili won. The subsequent turbulent years of civil unrest in Georgia deferred this grandiose plan for six years, and it was not until November 23, 1995, that the foundation of the new cathedral was laid eventually finishing construction on November 23, 2004 on the day of the Georgeba (one of the religious ceremonies of Georgia). The dome of this church is 7.5 meters high and is made of gold. The total height of the ground floor is 81.7m underground height is 13 meter. It is interesting to note that this building is not just a single church, but consists of 9 smaller churches. Jvari Monastery s a sixth century Georgian Orthodox monastery near Mtskheta, eastern Georgia Along with other historic structures of Mtskheta, it is listed as a World Heritage site by UNESCO from 1994. Jvari Monastery stands on the rocky mountaintop, overlooking the town of Mtskheta, which was formerly the capital of the Kingdom of Iberia. According to traditional accounts, on this location in the early 4th century Saint Nino a female evangelist credited with converting King Mirian III of Iberia to Christianity, erected a large wooden cross on the site of a pagan temple. The cross was reportedly able to work miracles and therefore drew pilgrims from all over the Caucasus. A small church was erected over the remnants of the wooden cross in c.545 named the “Small Church of Jvari”. Kartlis Deda or the Mother of Georgia was erected on the top of Sololaki hill in 1958, the year Tbilisi celebrated its 1500th anniversary. Prominent Georgian sculptor Elguja Amashukeli designed the twenty-metre aluminium figure of a woman in Georgian national dress. She symbolizes the Georgian national character: in her left hand she holds a bowl of wine to greet those who come as friends, and in her right hand is a sword for those who come as enemies. This square has witnessed many events throughout history. Referred to by the locals as Tavisupleba now a days this lively square has had different names throughout the years. The square was originally named after Ivan Paskevich, the Count of Erivan, a Ukrainian general of the Russian Imperial Army, who earned his title in honor of his conquest of Erivan (present-day Yerevan) for the Russian Empire. Under the Soviet Union, the square was renamed, first “Beria Square”, and then “Lenin Square”. The location was first named Freedom Square in 1918, during the foundation of the First Georgian Republic following the collapse of the Russian Empire. Freedom Square was the site of the 1907 Tiflis bank robbery. Freedom Square has also been the site of various mass demonstrations including those for Georgia’s independence (from the Soviet Union), the Rose Revolution, and others. In 2005 Freedom Square was the location where U.S. President George W. Bush and Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili addressed a crowd of around 100,000 people in celebration of the 60th anniversary marking the end of World War II During this event, Georgian-Armenian Vladimir Arutyunian threw a live grenade at President Bush while he was speaking in an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate him Tbilisi City Hall is situated on the Square. Other buildings include the former Bank of Georgia head office and the Marriott International Tbilisi. The square will also accommodate the Old Tbilisi local government office, the building works of which are already started. Abutting the north side of Freedom Square is a small open space with a fountain and a bust of Alexander Pushkin. During the Soviet period, the square featured a large statue of Vladimir Lenin, which was symbolically torn down in August 1991 On November 23, 2006, the Liberty Monument depicting St George slaying the dragon, created by Zurab Tsereteli was unveiled in the same place. Rustaveli Avenue formerly known as Golovin Street, is the central avenue in Tbilisi named after the medieval Georgian poet, Shota Rustaveli. The avenue starts at Freedom Square and extends for about 1.5 km in length, Rustaveli is often considered the main thoroughfare of Tbilisi due to a large number of governmental, public, cultural, and business buildings that are located along or near the avenue. The former Parliament of Georgia building the Georgian National Opera Theater the Rustaveli State Academic Theater the Georgian Academy of Sciences Kashveti Church Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia (part of the Georgian National Museum), and Biltmore Hotel Tbilisi among others, are all located on Rustaveli. In 1989, tens of thousands of Georgians gathered before the House of Government on Rustaveli Avenue. An attack by the Soviet Spetsnaz forces killed many protesters in the April 9 tragedy. Despite all its difficulties and tragedies this avenue has flourished as a place for happiness and celebration turning it into

Tbilisi tourist attractions

important tourist destination of Tbilisi :

The Tbilisi sea is an artificial lake in the vicinity of Tbilisi that serves as a reservoir. It was opened in 1953 and has become a popular recreation spot. Camping, swimming, fishing and sailing are among the popular activities carried out by thousands of tourists every day. The water park Gino Paradise famously hosts a variety of excellent recreational activities at Tbilisi Sea. It is planned to develop the Tbilisi sea into a recreational park with various sports facilities. The lake has a length of 8.75 km and a width of 2.85 km and for travelers flying into Tbilisi International Airport, it is visible just before landing.

The National Botanical Garden of Georgia, formerly the Tbilisi Botanical Garden is located in the Tsavkisis-Tskali Gorge on the southern foothills of the Sololaki Range it occupies the area of 161 hectares and possesses a collection of over 4,500 taxonomic groups. Its history spans more than three centuries. It was first descri bed, in 1671, by the French traveler Jean Chardin as royal gardens which might have been founded at least in 1625 From 1888 on, when a floristics center was set up, Yuri Voronov and several other notable scholars have worked for the Garden Between 1932 and 1958, the territory around the former Muslim cemetery was included in the botanical garden Several graves have survived however, including that of the prominent Azerbaijanian writer Mirza Fatali Akhundov (1812-1878). The central entrance to the Garden is located at the foothills of the Narikala Fortress. The other, cut through the rock as a long tunnel in 1909-14, had been functional until the mid-2000s when the tunnel was converted into Georgia’s largest nightclub “Gvirabi”.

visit to the breathtaking nature parks of this city. One of most beautiful of these locations is the Turtle Lake. This National Park is located in the suburbs of Tbilisi and is named after the large population of turtle which call it their home. Some know this lake by its Georgian name of Kus Tba. Turtle Lake is located on the wooded northern slope of Mtatsminda Mount at elevation of 686.7m above sea level The Turtle Lake area is designed as a recreational zone and is frequented by the Tbilisians on weekends. It is also a place where festivals and concerts are held It can be reached either via a road or an aerial tramway leading from Tbilisi’s Vake Municipality the tramway is open from 8:00 until 22:00 and costs 1 lari in each direction.

Lisi lake is a small lake in the vicinity of Tbilisi, Georgia. The lake and surrounding area provide a habitat for variety of different species of exotic birds In addition to various avian species, the area around the lake provides shelter to a variety of animals such as turtles, foxes and hares. The area is well known for the large population of snakes the live in the hillsides around the lake. There is a Warm, Mediterranean, and reasonably dry climate in the vicinity of Lisi Lake There is a Warm, Mediterranean, and reasonably dry climate in the vicinity of Lisi Lake This lake is also where the annual Tbilisi Open Air concerts are held.

Short travel guide to Milan Italy

Short travel guide to Milan Italy

we are in milan right now city of mode and design we are in Parco Sempione, the largest park in milan look at this beauty behind me the park was built in under the Napoleonic rule after so many years this is still the bigest park in milan can you believe? this building was designed by leonardo da vinci.this building is by da vinci this castle behind me is in the largest park in milan it was built in the year 1450 that means about 570 years ago very great architects and artists like da vinci and Cesare Cesariano and inside it there is a museum with so many arts from da vinci and Michelangelo the ticket is only 12 euros here looks like portugal this is arc the peace its origins can be traced back to a gate of the Roman walls of Milan but the arc was built in 1807 so about 215 years ago why they call here arc the peace? In 1816 when the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy fell and Milan was conquered by the Austrian Empire They called this place arc the peace I have to say .

We are on the Via Dante street it started raining and anything gonna be wet soon at the end of the Via Dante street was the Castello Sforzesco Castle with the Davinci painting and when you go the street straight ahead we cant still see any thing but the most famous Cathedral of city Milan guys! Im so excited look at this the third biggest Cathedral in the world in Milan look at this building look how beautiful this is look all this details did you know this building took nearly seven centuries to complete On 20 May 1805, Napoleon Bonaparte, about to be crowned King of Italy ordered the façade to be finished by Pellicani and after 700 years, finally was done we are front of the one of the bigest cathedral in the world and want to visit the inside As I said this building took nearly seven centuries to complete Why so long? in those days the had to take somehow this huge marble stones to the city center so many Engineers and Leonardo Davinci designed a system of interconnected canals in and around Milan So they could get the stones from there to here by cows Thats why this building took nearly seven centuries we are on the roof of the cathedral this is so cool!

Rome tourist attractions

Rome tourist attractions

Rome is the capital city of Italy. It is also the capital of the Lazio region, the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, and a special comune named Comune di Roma Capitale.

metropolitan city in Italy. Its metropolitan area is the third-most populous within Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. Vatican City (the smallest country in the world) is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city. Rome is often referred to as the City of Seven Hills due to its geographic location, and also as the “Eternal City”.Rome is generally considered to be the “cradle of Western civilization and Christian culture”, and the centre of the Catholic Church.

In 2019, Rome was the 14th most visited city in the world, with 8.6 million tourists, the third most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist destination in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is also the seat of several specialised agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). The city also hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean(UfM) as well as the headquarters of many international businesses, such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo, and banks such as BNL. Numerous companies are based within Rome’s EUR business district, such as the luxury fashion house Fendi located in the Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana. The presence of renowned international brands in the city has made Rome an important centre of fashion and design, and the Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies.


1.The Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine

The Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine

The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome dedicated to the emperor Constantine the Great. The arch was commissioned by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine’s victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in AD 312.

The three bay design with detached columns was first used for the Arch of Septimius Severus in the Roman Forum (which stands at the end of the triumph route) and repeated in several other arches now lost.

Though dedicated to Constantine, much of the sculptural decoration consists of reliefs and statues removed from earlier triumphal monuments dedicated to Trajan (98–117), Hadrian (117–138) and Marcus Aurelius (161–180).

As the Eiffel Tower is to Paris, the silhouette of the Flavian Amphitheatre is to Rome. The largest structure left to us by Roman antiquity, the Colosseum still provides the model for sports arenas – present day football stadium design is clearly based on this oval Roman plan.

The building was begun by Vespasian in AD 72, and after his son Titus enlarged it by adding the fourth story, it was inaugurated in the year AD 80 with a series of splendid games. The Colosseum was large enough for theatrical performances, festivals, circuses, or games, which the Imperial Court and high officials watched from the lowest level, aristocratic Roman families on the second, the populace on the third and fourth.


2.Vatican City

Vatican City, a city-state surrounded by Rome, Italy, is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church. It's home to the Pope and a trove of iconic art and architecture. Its Vatican Museums house ancient Roman sculptures such as the famed “Laocoön and His Sons” as well as Renaissance frescoes in the Raphael Rooms and the Sistine Chapel, famous for Michelangelo’s ceiling.

Vatican City a city-state surrounded by Rome, Italy, is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church. It’s home to the Pope and a trove of iconic art and architecture. Its Vatican Museums house ancient Roman sculptures such as the famed “Laocoön and His Sons” as well as Renaissance frescoes in the Raphael Rooms and the Sistine Chapel, famous for Michelangelo’s ceiling.

Vatican City (/ˈvætɪkən/ (listen)), officially Vatican City State (Italian: Stato della Città del Vaticano; Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent city-state, microstate and enclave within Rome, Italy.It became independent from Italy in 1929 with the Lateran Treaty, and it is a distinct territory under “full ownership, exclusive dominion, and sovereign authority and jurisdiction” of the Holy See, itself a sovereign entity of international law, which maintains the city state’s temporal, diplomatic, and spiritual independence.With an area of 49 hectares (121 acres) and a 2019 population of about 453, it is the smallest state in the world both by area and population. As governed by the Holy See, Vatican City State is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state ruled by the Pope who is the bishop of Rome and head of the Catholic Church. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergy of various origins. After the Avignon Papacy (1309–1377) the popes have mainly resided at the Apostolic Palace within what is now Vatican City, although at times residing instead in the Quirinal Palace in Rome or elsewhere. The Vatican is also a metonym for the Holy See.

The Vatican is the smallest independent state in the world, with an area of less than half a square kilometer, most of it enclosed by the Vatican walls. Inside are the Vatican palace and gardens, St. Peter’s Basilica, and St. Peter’s Square, an area ruled by the Pope, supreme head of the Roman Catholic Church. This compact space offers a lot of things to see, between its museums and the great basilica itself.

Inside St. Peter’s Basilica is Michelangelo’s masterpiece, Pieta, along with statuary and altars by Bernini and others. The unquestioned highlight of the Vatican museums is the Sistine Chapel, whose magnificent frescoed ceiling is Michelangelo’s most famous work.


3.The Pantheon

The Pantheon

The Pantheon is a former Roman temple and, since 609 AD, a Catholic church in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus. It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated c. 126 AD.

The Pantheon – the best-preserved monument of Roman antiquity – is remarkably intact for its 2000 years. This is despite the fact that Pope Gregory III removed the gilded bronze roof tiles, and Pope Urban VIII ordered its bronze roof stripped and melted down to cast the canopy over the altar in St. Peter’s and cannons for Castel Sant’Angelo.

The Pantheon was rebuilt after damage by fire in AD 80, and the resulting brickwork shows the extraordinarily high technical mastery of Roman builders. Its 43-meter dome, the supreme achievement of Roman interior architecture, hangs suspended without visible supports – these are well hidden inside the walls – and its nine-meter central opening is the building’s only light source.

The building is cylindrical with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon’s dome is still the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43 metres (142 ft).

It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history: since the 7th century, it has been a church dedicated to St. Mary and the Martyrs (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as “Santa Maria Rotonda”. The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy’s Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio. In 2013, it was visited by over 6 million people.


4.Roman Forum

 Roman Forum

The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum, is a rectangular forum surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space, originally a marketplace, as the Forum Magnum, or simply the Forum.

Walking through the forum, now in the middle of a throbbing modern city, is like stepping back two millennia into the heart of ancient Rome. Although what survives of this center of Roman life and government shows only a small fraction of its original splendor, the standing and fallen columns, its triumphal arches, and remains of its walls still impress, especially when you consider that for centuries, the history of the Forum was the history of the Roman Empire and of the Western world.

Roman political and religious life was centered here, along with the courts, markets, and meeting places. After the seventh century, the buildings fell into ruin, and churches and fortresses were built amid the ancient remains. Its stones were quarried for other buildings and it was not until the 18th and 19th centuries that systematic excavations brought the ancient buildings to light from under a 10-meter layer of earth and rubble.

For centuries the Forum was the center of day-to-day life in Rome: the site of triumphal processions and elections; the venue for public speeches, criminal trials, and gladiatorial matches; and the nucleus of commercial affairs. Here statues and monuments commemorated the city’s great men. The teeming heart of ancient Rome, it has been called the most celebrated meeting place in the world, and in all history. Located in the small valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, the Forum today is a sprawling ruin of architectural fragments and intermittent archaeological excavations attracting 4.5 million or more sightseers yearly.


5.Centro Storico & the Spanish Steps

Centro Storico & the Spanish Steps

The Spanish Steps in Rome, Italy, climb a steep slope between the Piazza di Spagna at the base and Piazza Trinità dei Monti, dominated by the Trinità dei Monti church, at the top.

Take a look at a Rome tourist map, and you’ll see one area so filled with things to do that it’s hard to read the street names. This is the Centro Storico, the historic center of Rome, with so many art-filled churches, resplendent palaces, and lively squares that you could spend your whole vacation strolling its ancient streets and lanes.

Spend some time just to absorb the neighborhood’s atmosphere instead of going from one of its must-see sights to the next. Along with Piazza Navona, the Trevi Fountain, and the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, stop in less well-known churches, such as Santa Maria del Popolo, where you’ll find works by Bernini and Caravaggio.

The monumental stairway of 135 steps was built with French diplomat Étienne Gueffier’s bequeathed funds of 20,000 scudi, in 1723–1725, linking the Trinità dei Monti church under the patronage of the Bourbon kings of France, at the top of the steps, and the Spanish Embassy to the Holy See in the Palazzo Monaldeschi at the bottom of the steps. The stairway was designed by architects Francesco de Sanctis and Alessandro Specchi.


6.Santa Maria Maggiore

Santa Maria Maggiore

The Basilica of Saint Mary Major, or church of Santa Maria Maggiore, is a Major papal basilica as well as one of the Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome and the largest Catholic Marian church in Rome, Italy.

One of Rome’s most majestic churches, Santa Maria Maggiore has stood here since the fourth-century Pope Liberius had a vision of the Virgin directing him to build a church where snow fell the following day. Although it was August, snow did fall on the Esquiline hill the next morning, so here the great basilica was built.

Mass has been celebrated here every day since the fifth century. The three aisles of its 86-meter-long interior are separated by 40 columns of marble and four of granite, and the apse added in the 13th century is lined with mosaics of Old and New Testament themes, masterpieces of Rome’s famous mosaic artists.

The basilica enshrines the venerated image of Salus Populi Romani, depicting the Blessed Virgin Mary as the health and protectress of the Roman people, which was granted a Canonical coronation by Pope Gregory XVI on 15 August 1838 accompanied by his Papal bull Cælestis Regina.

Pursuant to the Lateran Treaty of 1929 between the Holy See and Italy, the Basilica is within Italian territory and not the territory of the Vatican City State. However, the Holy See fully owns the Basilica, and Italy is legally obligated to recognize its full ownership thereof and to concede to it “the immunity granted by International Law to the headquarters of the diplomatic agents of foreign States.” In other words, the complex of buildings has a status somewhat similar to a foreign embassy.


7.Piazza Navona

Piazza Navona

Piazza Navona is a public open space in Rome, Italy. It is built on the site of the Stadium of Domitian, built in the 1st century AD, and follows the form of the open space of the stadium. The ancient Romans went there to watch the agones, and hence it was known as “Circus Agonalis”.

Piazza Navona (pronounced) is a public open space in Rome, Italy. It is built on the site of the Stadium of Domitian, built in the 1st century AD, and follows the form of the open space of the stadium.The ancient Romans went there to watch the agones (“games”), and hence it was known as “Circus Agonalis” (“competition arena”). It is believed that over time the name changed to in avone to navone and eventually to navona.

One of Rome’s most characteristic Baroque squares, Piazza Navona still has the outline of the Roman stadium built here by Emperor Domitian. It was still used for festivals and horse races during the Middle Ages, and was rebuilt in the Baroque style by Borromini, who also designed the magnificent series of palaces and the church of Sant’Agnese, on its west side.

Its facade, campanile, and dome highlight the way Baroque architecture weaves convex and concave surfaces, gables, windows, columns, and piers into a unified design. In the crypt of Sant’Agnese are Alessandro Algardi’s 1653 The Miracle of St. Agnes and the remains of a Roman mosaic floor. Sant’Agnese provided a model for Baroque and Rococo churches in Italy and elsewhere.

Although Borromini designed the square and its surrounding facades, it was his archrival, Bernini, who created its centerpiece, the beautiful Baroque fountain, Fontana dei Fiumi. The spirited fountain represents the four rivers then thought to be the largest on each of the known continents, with figures personifying the Nile, Ganges, Danube, and Rio de la Plata around the large basin, each accompanied by plants and animals of their respective regions.